The Peel Web
I am happy that you are using this web site and hope that you found it useful. Unfortunately, the cost of making this material freely available is increasing, so if you have found the site useful and would like to contribute towards its continuation, I would greatly appreciate it. Click the button to go to Paypal and make a donation.
This page is a joint effort; I am grateful to Arthur Reeves for adding a great deal of information to the original material.
Disraeli was keen to ignore Ireland as far as possible because he had concerns that attempting to deal with Ireland would cause difficulties within his party. The disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, passed by Gladstone in 1869, caused Disraeli great problems. On the one hand the Conservatives had to defend the established Church, for this encompassed one of the integral cornerstones of the Conservative Party principles (Church, Crown and ‘Constitution’ – i.e. House of Lords). On the other, many within the Conservative party knew that the maintenance of an established Protestant Church in Ireland was almost impossible to defend, since Ireland was largely a Catholic country. In some areas the Catholic population totalled over 95%.
Thus Disraeli came to government with no Irish policy in mind, and no intention of dealing with Ireland. Gladstone’s defeat over the University Bill in 1873 further showed that, where possible, it was best to avoid Irish issues. Further, Ireland was relatively prosperous and peaceful and with no political or parliamentary pressure Disraeli could easily avoid the Irish question. This was something that Gladstone’s second ministry, however much some may have wanted to, simply could not do.
Disraeli appointed Abercorn to the Viceroyalty; he was a man with a reputation for laziness. Disraeli also appointed Sir Michael Hicks Beach as Irish Chief Secretary; he was a man with no Irish interest and limited political experience. Neither had a seat in Cabinet. Thus Disraeli successfully avoided Ireland between 1874-6.
In 1876, following Abercorn’s resignation, Malborough was appointed Viceroy of Ireland. Hicks Beach had also been promoted to the Cabinet. It is likely that Disraeli promoted him with the view to removing him from the Chief Secretaryship, since Hicks Beach became committed to remedial education change in Ireland. Malborough, along with Hicks Beach in the Cabinet, believed in change and in 1878 an Intermediary Education Bill was passed. In February 1878 Lowther replaced Hicks Beach as Chief Secretary. Lowther, (who did not sit in the Cabinet, publicly announced he was an ‘out and out Tory’, was wholly reactionary and against all reform for Ireland. Two factors however came to have a major impact on the Conservative government:
 The attempt by MPs to delay a bill for as long as possible until time ran out. Parliament runs in sessions. Legislation has to pass through in one session – it cannot overrun into the next. Through the nineteenth century Parliament tended to meet between January-July (although Governments held the prerogative – as they still do – to extend the Parliamentary session or recall Parliament whilst in recess) [back]
In truth, there is very little accessible material on this specific topic. Robert Blake’s The Conservative Party from Peel to Churchill (1970) provides a good background for the development of the Conservative party in general, and Disraeli’s intentions in his 1868 and 1874 ministries.
|Meet the web creator||
These materials may be freely used for
non-commercial purposes in accordance with applicable statutory allowances
and distribution to students.
Last modified 26 October, 2013
|American Affairs 1760-83||The Age of the French Wars 1792-1815||Irish Affairs 1760-89|
|Economic Affairs in the Age of Peel||Irish
|Primary sources index||British Political Personalities||British Foreign policy 1815-65||European history||