British Foreign Policy 1815-65

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The Congress of Vienna, 1 November 1814-8 June 1815

As agreed at the first Treaty of Paris in 1814, a congress of the Great Powers of Europe met at Vienna to settle the future boundaries of the continent. Almost every state in Europe was represented. The emperors of Austria and Russia, the kings of Prussia, Denmark, Bavaria and Württemberg and many German princes including the Elector of Hesse, the Grand Duke of Baden and the dukes of Saxe-Weimar, Brunswick and Coburg, attended in person. 

The Congress

The principal negotiators were: 

Austria   Metternich 
Prussia  Hardenberg and von Humbolt 
Russia  Nesselrode and Rasoumoffski
Great Britain Castlereagh, and later, Wellington 
France  Talleyrand and Dalberg

Although interrupted by the ?a href="../c-eight/france/hundred.htm">Hundred Days? and troubled by rivalries, the Congress achieved a settlement which remained in force in much of central and eastern Europe until the First World War. This link will take you to a map of Europe in 1815.  The main provisions of the Congress were:

Great Britain retained

Prussia

Austria

The German states

Russia

Italy

Low Countries

The formation of the kingdom of the Netherlands was ratified, comprising the former republic of Holland and Austrian Belgium, under the former hereditary Stadtholder as King William I. The sovereignty of the Netherlands was given to the House of Orange, and the King of the Netherlands was made Grand Duke of Luxembourg, making him a member of the German Confederation

Switzerland

The 19 existing cantons were increased to 22 by the addition of Geneva, Wallis, and Neuchatel. Switzerland became a confederation of independent cantons with its neutrality guaranteed by the Great Powers

Sweden and Denmark

Sweden retained Norway which had been ceded to her by Denmark at the Peace of Kiel (14 January 1814). The Norwegians were guaranteed the possession of their Liberties and rights.
Denmark was indemnified with Lauenburg

Spain and Portugal

France

The slave trade

In February 1815, the Congress condemned the slave trade as inconsistent with civilisation and human rights.

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Last modified 11 November, 2013

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